The Effect of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic on University Students' Mental Health and Life Quality: A Retrospective Cohort Study
Keywords:Cohort, COVID-19, Depression, Mental Health
Background: Mental health disorders and low quality of life are considered common psychiatric problems resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite the significant importance of the knowledge and research about COVID-19 mental consequences, few studies are addressing it locally in Jordan. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the effect of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on university students' mental health and life quality.
Method: A retrospective cohort study was undertaken for students in Jordanian universities using an online questionnaire. Our survey consisted of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 2‐item (GAD-2), The Patient Health Questionnaire 2-item (PHQ-2), UCLA Loneliness Scale, and the COVID-19–Impact on Quality of Life (COV19-QoL) scale to examine students' quality of life, loneliness, besides examining the difference between depression and anxiety, independently, before and during COVID-19 pandemic among Jordanian universities students. We analyzed the data using SPSS Software version 26.
Results: The study included 537 participants, 371 (69.1%) of them were female, with a mean age of participants equal to 19.1 ± 0.84, with a range of 17 to 22 years. Most of the participants were second-year students 393 (54.6%) and more than half of the participants never weekly exercised. the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and loneliness after the COVID-19 pandemic were 305 (56.8%), 311 (57.9%), and 371 (69.1%); respectively. Chi-square analysis revealed that females with loneliness, depression, and anxiety were statistically predominant (p=0.014, p=0.023, p=0.000; respectively). In contrast, there was no significant difference among basic academic years students in terms of these mental outcomes. The impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on depression scores of singles was significantly higher than those who were in relationships (p= 0.008). The less depressed students were those who sleep at the night and those who have hobbies (p=0.02, p=0.007; respectively).
Conclusion: Our study results highlighted and supported a significant change in the participants’ scores regarding their mental status before and after the outbreak. Furthermore, several factors preserve the mental health of students against the consequences of the COVID-19 crisis, such as gender, having hobbies, being in a relationship, bedtime, and sleep hours. Additionally, the study found that loneliness, anxiety, and depression can predict life quality. Eventually, the government should provide more attention to the student’s psychological issues. Future research should investigate which group of students have more susceptibility to being mentally affected by similar outbreaks to develop specific and efficient actions that are targeted to these certain groups, thus improving the chance of the psychological benefits.
Key Words: Cohort, COVID-19, Depression, Mental Health
- 2023-02-21 (2)
- 2022-12-31 (1)
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Khaled Albakri, Yasmeen Alabdallat, Abdulrhman Khaity, Jehad Feras Samhouri
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- The Author retains copyright in the Work, where the term “Work” shall include all digital objects that may result in subsequent electronic publication or distribution.
- Upon acceptance of the Work, the author shall grant to the Publisher the right of first publication of the Work.
- The Author shall grant to the Publisher and its agents the nonexclusive perpetual right and license to publish, archive, and make accessible the Work in whole or in part in all forms of media now or hereafter known under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License or its equivalent, which, for the avoidance of doubt, allows others to copy, distribute, and transmit the Work under the following conditions:
- Attribution—other users must attribute the Work in the manner specified by the author as indicated on the journal Web site; with the understanding that the above condition can be waived with permission from the Author and that where the Work or any of its elements is in the public domain under applicable law, that status is in no way affected by the license.
- The Author is able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the nonexclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the Work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), as long as there is provided in the document an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post online a prepublication manuscript (but not the Publisher’s final formatted PDF version of the Work) in institutional repositories or on their Websites prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work. Any such posting made before acceptance and publication of the Work shall be updated upon publication to include a reference to the Publisher-assigned DOI (Digital Object Identifier) and a link to the online abstract for the final published Work in the Journal.
- Upon Publisher’s request, the Author agrees to furnish promptly to Publisher, at the Author’s own expense, written evidence of the permissions, licenses, and consents for use of third-party material included within the Work, except as determined by Publisher to be covered by the principles of Fair Use.
- The Author represents and warrants that:
- the Work is the Author’s original work;
- the Author has not transferred, and will not transfer, exclusive rights in the Work to any third party;
- the Work is not pending review or under consideration by another publisher;
- the Work has not previously been published;
- the Work contains no misrepresentation or infringement of the Work or property of other authors or third parties; and
- the Work contains no libel, invasion of privacy, or other unlawful matter.
- The Author agrees to indemnify and hold Publisher harmless from the Author’s breach of the representations and warranties contained in Paragraph 6 above, as well as any claim or proceeding relating to Publisher’s use and publication of any content contained in the Work, including third-party content.
Enforcement of copyright
The IJMS takes the protection of copyright very seriously.
If the IJMS discovers that you have used its copyright materials in contravention of the license above, the IJMS may bring legal proceedings against you seeking reparation and an injunction to stop you using those materials. You could also be ordered to pay legal costs.
If you become aware of any use of the IJMS' copyright materials that contravenes or may contravene the license above, please report this by email to firstname.lastname@example.org
If you become aware of any material on the website that you believe infringes your or any other person's copyright, please report this by email to email@example.com